Saturday, August 22, 2020

SLA: Language Acquisition Vs Learning

SLA: Language Acquisition Vs Learning Bilingualism 10/1/17 Introduction to Bilingualism During this talk, I took in the definition and the significance of bilingualism. Consistently, the meaning of bilingualism has changed gradually from has local like control of at least two dialects (Bloomfield, 1933) to works in two dialects every day (David, 1999, pg 157). Just as this, I additionally came to understand that there are various interconnected issues that influence bilingualism, for example, race, force, society, and culture. This intrigued me since I didn't understand how much on the planet influences bilingualism and how these issues are interconnected. For instance, if a family are supremacist and have solid political perspectives against foreigners, they are less inclined to help bilingualism and their youngster/kids are less inclined to be available to learning another dialect because of their folks sees. Finding out about bilingualism and understanding its significance will help me in my job as an educator as it will assist me with making bilingual kids feel prog ressively great and welcome in my classroom[A1]. In this talk, we were placed into gatherings and given a situation about a bilingual youngster coming into the school. In the gathering that I was a piece of, our situation was a youthful Spanish young lady coming into essential 2. In our gathering, we examined the significance of causing this youngster to feel welcome and guaranteeing that she comprehended what was going. In the first place, we believed that inquiring as to whether she feels sufficiently great to impart her experience to class would be a decent method to give her that as her instructor, I am keen on where she has originated from while at the equivalent setting up the degree of English the youngster comprehends and can use. We likewise felt that having, for instance, the hues up on a divider show in both English and Spanish would assist the kid with differentiating between the two dialects and become accustomed to the English while as yet having the solace of her first language. Utilizing the Learning in 2+ Languages (2005) archive during this talk caused me to acknowledge how significant bilingualism is and how helpful it very well may be for both small kids and grown-ups. I discovered that bilingualism doesn't defer a childs subjective advancement like some accept yet brings various intellectual points of interest, for example, a more noteworthy innovative potential and a more noteworthy familiarity with how dialects work. 17/1/17 Second Language Acquisition: Language Acquisition Vs Learning All through this meeting, I was acquainted with various speculations, and their reactions, encompassing how an individual gains/learns an alternate language. As indicated by Krashens Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis (1982) there are two unmistakable procedures to learning a language: Acquisition or securing a language and Learning a language. Gaining a language alludes to the detached procedure of getting the nuances of a language through normal adapting anyway learning a language alludes to the dynamic procedure wherein students become mindful of the principles of the language they are attempting to learn. In any case, McLaughlin (1978) states that this hypothesis is difficult to demonstrate. This intrigued me as I had never understood that there was a conviction that procuring and learning a language were two distinct procedures. Reflecting back to my own encounters of learning a language[A2], I was constantly shown the principles and sentence structure of language instead of gettin g it through regular procedures consequently, as I would see it, I accept that they are certainly two separate procedures yet I additionally accept that these are intently between associated. For me, the most fascinating theory that we were acquainted with in this talk was The Affective Filter Hypothesis. This is the possibility that passionate factors can have an impact and keep somebody from learning a language. These incorporate inspiration, fearlessness, and uneasiness. The lower the full of feeling channel, the more language the understudy will get. This shows a kid with low fearlessness may not get a language as effectively as a youngster with high self-assurance. As indicated by the ONS Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey (2004), 2.2% or around 96,000 youngsters have a nervousness issue. This shows doubtlessly, instructors will be confronted with the test of attempting to show a language to a kid who can't get it as effectively as different kids in the class. Be that as it may, Krashen claims[A3] that youngsters don't have a similar full of feeling channel as grown-ups yet in addition experience contrasts identified with the emotional channels. A full of feel ing channel just records for singular variety in language securing, it can't be applied to all kids. Just as this, we likewise took a gander at the Count Us In A Sense of Belonging (2009) which featured the significance of improving the learning of certain understudies. Just as this, the report made me mindful of the move in patters of relocation, particularly since 2004. Because of simpler access and less expensive travel, the quantity of migrants coming to Scotland has expanded drastically. A large number of those moving to Scotland carry with them little youngsters who must be placed into the tutoring framework. This Count Us In report accentuates the significance of educators in supporting recently showed up youngsters and guaranteeing that they can get to the educational plan. As a student essential instructor, this is critical to me as youngsters must have the option to get to the educational program so as to learn and succeed. 24/1/17 Language and Society Viewing Jane Elliots tests in partiality both stunned me and fascinated me. The strategy that she uses to instruct the kids about separation is both compelling and fascinating yet it is likewise extremely off-base. In any case, this test occurred during the 1960s along these lines despite the fact that it isn't right in the current instructive setting, it might not have been as off-base at that point. By telling the kids one day that the blue looked at individuals were superior to the earthy colored peered toward individuals, it changed their perspectives towards one another definitely and even brought about certain youngsters being forceful to each other. When the instructor makes reference to that the individuals with blue eyes are preferable and increasingly better over the kids with earthy colored eyes, the earthy colored peered toward kids look annoyed and stunned while the blue peered toward kids think it is entertaining and they are energized. Jane Elliot powers the earthy colored looked at kids to wear collars and doesnt permit them to play on any of the play area hardware. She gives the blue peered toward kids unique benefits and they exploit these. In the opposite circumstance, the blue peered toward kids become disturbed and come to acknowledge how the earthy colored looked at youngsters felt the day preceding. Just as this, we see that when the youngsters are given ben efits and are treated as predominant, they accomplish their work snappier and their learning is improved. Toward the finish of this day, the kids all return together and examine how being oppressed caused them to feel. One youngster depicted it as feeling like a pooch on a rope. Huge numbers of the kids came to understand that being oppressed for something that you can't control is one of the most exceedingly terrible emotions and that nobody ought to be victimized. This examination caused me to understand that in my job as an essential instructor, it is fundamental to show my understudies the significance of regarding everybody and treating everybody the equivalent. Tomlinson (2005, pg 154) states that Failure to build up an educational program for a multiethnic culture has added to an expansion in xenophobia and bigotry. This caused me to accept that equity is something that kids need to get mindful of at a youthful age and it is an aspect of my responsibilities to make them mindful of it. On the off chance that, for instance, an offspring of another race came into my study hall, my activity is guarantee that all the kids in my homeroom were conscious and didn't treat them any unique as a result of the shade of their skin. While this investigation caused me to understand the entirety of this, it additionally caused me to understand that when in a study hall, treating kids contrastingly can massively affect their mentalities to each other conse quently educators should be careful[A4]. 31/01/17 The Scottish Context The quantity of families moving to Scotland has expanded consistently and, especially in 2004, the quantity of settlers that came to Scotland expanded impressively (Count Us In, pg 2). During this talk, we inspected the insights of both migration and the quantity of worker kids moving into new schools. For me as a creating essential instructor, it was fascinating to perceive how the quantity of foreigners coming to Scotland influenced the tutoring measurements. The reasons that individuals move to another nation can change definitely. Many move for family reasons or new professions though others move since they need a position of security. Migration hugy affects both Scottish society and schools. As a general public, we must be all the more inviting all in all just as just in the networks where the foreigners move to. Demonstrating admiration to all families and getting mindful of what a portion of these families will confront each day is basic. At the point when a family move to Scotland and put their child(ren) into a school, it influences the school sector[A5]. As essential instructors, we should consider bilingualism and become mindful of assorted variety. Inside the study hall, we need to guarantee that the kid is agreeable and comprehends what is happening consistently as it is our duty to ensure that they don't fall behind on the work and are learning. In my job as an essential educator, it is significant for me to open youngsters to a second language at a youthful age as this is the best lucky opening and is bound to lead the kid to get bilingual than introduction to a second language in high school or grown-up years. Numerous guardians accept that they ought not present a second language until they have completely settled one language anyway it is progressively hard to present a second language l

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Buy, Borrow, Bypass Novels about the Voynich Manuscript

Buy, Borrow, Bypass Novels about the Voynich Manuscript I only learned about the Voynich Manuscript a few months ago but I have been obsessed ever since. Sometimes described as the most mysterious book in the world, the Voynich Manuscript could be a 15th century coded book containing all sorts of important secrets about the world. It could also be a complex hoax perpetrated by a rare book dealer. Since its discovery in the early 20th century, scholars and the curious have studied and speculated about this odd, beautiful book. It resembles an herbal text in some places, an alchemy text in others, and a religious text in still others.  A century of scholarship hasnt really resolved any of these questions and nobody has ever deciphered it. There are many novels  that use the Voynich Manuscript as a major plot device. However, before you start in on those novels, youll need to pick up your very own reproduction of the book. Yale University Press published a gorgeous, full-color facsimile of the manuscript last year. Deborah Harkness (!) wrote the introduction to the book and it  includes essays and commentary from noted scholars in a variety of fields. If youre not ready to invest in this version, you can also view the entire manuscript for free online. Once youve got your bearings, or at least have a sense of the manuscripts content, youll be ready for the novels on this list. The Book of Blood and Shadow by  Robin Wasserman is the girl-power, YA-Da Vinici Code  you need in your life. Nora, the slightly awkward but whip smart teen girl at the center of this novel, manages to do the impossible: she    decodes the Voynich Manuscript. Once she does, she unlocks the secrets of an ancient religious order. Her race to avert catastrophe, and clear her boyfriend of a murder charge, takes her from a quaint New England college town to Pragues ancient religious sites. This book has a delicious blend of religion and myth, several languages (Latin, Greek, French, and Czech), secret codes and riddles, secret societies, and brilliant teenagers who know more than they ever should. Verdict: Buy this book if youre ready for a YA-spin on Dan Browns work (and how could you not be?). Datura, or a Delusion We All See by Leena Krohn, translated from the Finnish by    J. Robert Tupasela and Anna Volmari.  I may have identified a little too much with the unnamed narrator of this slim volume. She works as an editor, writer, and fixer for a magazine that features the worlds odd, surreal, and implausible phenomenon. The book follows her slow descent into what?  Not madness, exactly, but something like it. As she starts ingesting Datura seeds and writing an article about the Voynich Manuscript her grip on reality becomes more tenuous. Along the way, she crosses paths with all sorts of odd characters, including a man obsessed with coincidences and another with silent sound. She also begins to question the nature of reality, history, and life itself. Verdict: Borrow  this Kafkaesque  book on the mysteries we all inhabit without always realizing it. Codex by Lev Grossman was inspired by the Voynich Manyscript but doesnt actually discuss it in any detail. I  had really high hopes for Codex when I started it  after all, Grossman wrote the beloved  Magicians Trilogy but was disappointed. The narrator is a sort of smarmy, 25-year old investment banker about to move  London. During a  two week vacation leading up to  the move, he takes on the work of cataloging the private library of a wealthy family. This leads him to a mysterious book that reveals secrets about the familys lineage. Solving the manuscripts mystery requires him to work with a young graduate student in medieval literature, obsessively play an underground video game, and cope with an existential crisis. Although I was generally interested in the plot, this novel just didnt land for me. The narrator comments on the appearance  and sexual availability of every woman he meets, no matter how minor the interaction. It got grating after a while. Verdict: Bypass this dated book that was inspired by, but isnt really about, the Voynich Manuscript.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Palestinian problem - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3612 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category History Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? In order to have a thorough understanding of the Palestinian problem, events in the early 20th century, prior to 1948 (Israeli independence) should be closely examined and understood. Many historians mark the first act which led to the Palestinian problem as the Balfour Declaration in 1917. There, it was announced that Britain shall support in the goals of Zionists, and therein strive to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine, His Majestys Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people[1]. With Jewish spirits high all over the Jewish Diaspora, the third Aliyah (influx of Jews to Palestine) took place in 1919[2]. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Palestinian problem" essay for you Create order The number of Jews gradually increased in Palestine, and by 1947, the 11% population of Jews increased to a healthy 33%[3]. The immediate cause of the Palestinian problem is often dated to November 29th 1947, on which the UN announced that the British Mandate of Palestine would be divided into separate Arab and Jewish states[4]. The decree sparked great outrage from Arab nations, but was a warmly welcomed decision from the Jews and other European and North American States. Two pinnacle wars then followed which would directly influence into the Palestinian problem. The Civil War first took place as an immediate reaction eleven days after the UNs declaration. Jewish victory then led war lead to two events: the Israeli Declaration of Independence on May the 14th 1948 and the beginning of An-Nakabah, the Palestinian Exodus. In first phase of the Palestinian Exodus, 125,000 were evicted or fled from their homes, and were prevented from returning[5]. The second war that followed was the Arab-Israeli War of 1948. In this war, Israel was to face a grand Arab coalition which denounced its independence. A decisive Israeli victory, and a disastrous Arab defeat increased the final number of the Palestinian exodus to a staggering 750 000 Palestinians. By the middle of the 20th century, State of Israel was firmly established upon the former Palestinian territories, and many Palestinian settlements were either depopulated or destroyed. Hence, the Palestinian problem was herein created; an issue of Palestinians, their state, homeland, refugees, and also Palestinian-Israeli co-existence in Palestine and the stance of Jerusalem, is all to exist until this very day. Yasser Arafat and the Creation of Fatah: Born on 24 August 1929, in Cairo, Egypt, Yasser Arafat was the son of Palestinian parent[6]. During the Arab-Israeli conflict of 1948, he went to Palestine to join the fighting. His role in the Palestinian problem begins early on in his political life when in 1958, Arafat, with a number of his Palestinian colleagues in Kuwait, corroborated and formed the militant group Fatah. The group was dedicated to liberate Palestine by Palestinians with a means of force. The idea was to eliminate Zionist Israel re-establish Palestinian homeland and resolve the Palestinian problem. Until this very day, Fatahs main goal is, complete liberation of Palestine, and eradication of Zionist economic, political, military and cultural existence.[7] A Means of Force, to Settle to Problem: The Rise of Fatah, the PLO and the 70s: In the Six Day War, Fatah did play a small role in the fighting against the Israel. The humiliating Arab defeat further broke Arab morale especially that of the Palestinians who consequently lost trust in the united Arab resolution. But Fatah was to have its first main military encounter with Israel in the Battle of Karameh on March 21st 1968. With Fatah growing in stature, organised raid were conducted against Israeli settlements. Israels retaliation was to raid the Jordanian city of Karameh, a newly made stronghold for Fatah[8]. Though the battle was a military victory for Israel, it was seen as a somewhat physiological victory for Fatah. Abdallah Frangi (a Palestinian leader at the time) labelled it the political and military turning point in the Palestinian resistance, especially for Fatah.[9] Arab support was rallied behind the group, and Arafat was able to garner a number of Palestinian recruits for his group. Fatah was inducted into the PLO in 1967, and in 1969, Yasser Ar afat became chairman of the PLO. Arafat transformed the organisation into becoming a strong independent organisation intended to make Palestinian appeals be heard by the world[10]. He therein became the ultimate leader of the Palestinian resurgence. By 1970, Yasser Arafat was deeply engaging in his arms resolution of the Palestinian problem. Raids into Israeli territories were organised regularly and Fatah was became an increased threat to Israel. In Arafats and Fatahs prime years of the 70s, both the PLO and Mossad (The Israeli Intelligence Agency) engaged in terrorist style warfare against each other. The Mossads known for several key assassinations, such as that of Ghassan Kanafani [11], (writer and spokesman for the Popular Front of the Liberation of Palestine, considered the second largest group in the PLO after Fatah) and Dr Wadie Haddad[12] (leader of the PFLP.) For the PLO, the Fatah group, Black September were one of the key groups engaging in such activities[13]. One of the most famous works of Black September was the abduction and assassination of 11 Israeli athletes in the 1972 Munich Olympic Games[14]. Though Arafat has never been proven to be part of the attacks, Israeli and American authorities often associate him to them. Analysis of Arafats Forceful Resolve: A number of western sources agree that Yasser Arafat tried to resolve the Palestinian problem through a means of terrorism. Its stated that he saw in terrorism, not of the horrific murders, but rather a means of gaining recognition for Palestine and Palestinian struggle. Barry and Judith Rubin, authors of Yasser Arafat: A Political Biography state, He had seen how it [terrorism] mobilized Palestinian and Arab support for the PLO; raised the Palestine issues international priority; prevented other Arab states from negotiating peace with Israel, and made many western leaders eager to appease him.[15] Often using the Fatah subgroup, Black September, there are claims that Arafat often approved operations and stemmed funds to them[16]. The argument also states that Arafat consistently throughout his life would deny such acts, thereby having a remarkable ability to escape responsibility for the terrorism he committed.[17] These views clearly classify Arafats armed approach in dealing wi th the Palestinian problem as acts of terrorism. They proclaim that Arafat, as a terrorist, used fear antic to drive his goal of dealing with the Palestinian struggle. The alternative view, in that Arafat was a freedom fighter is believed by many other historians and writers. Its a stance expressed by one of the closest people to Arafat, Bassam Abu Sharif (Senior Advisor to Yasser Arafat.) In his book, Arafat and the Dream for Palestine, he states, In my opinion, people in the west saw Arafat through the negative propaganda which rather painted Arafat as a terrorist, rather than a freedom fighter[18]. With the Palestinian problem ignored early on by many western countries[19], it indeed was Arafat who rather globalised the issue, made it a phenomenon everyone needed to solve. This is seen to make Arafats armed role in dealing with the Palestinian problem a pivotal one. These arguments also highlight Arafat as being the sole power in the Palestinian revival following the Six Day W ar, It was in these disheartening circumstances that the Palestinian revival began. There was little doubt that Arafats was the decisive voice[20]. Also, those which Arafat commanded are perceived as freedom fighters by some, Yasser Arafat, who had emerged as a significant figure in the Palestinian struggle for liberation, recruited young people to the resistance movement. In 1970, Palestinian freedom fighters took control of the Gaza Strip Yasser Arafat hence provided Palestinian revitalisation in the Palestinian problem, hereby making his armed role an extremely important one. As quoted by Stephen Howe, Without the Arafat of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, there might well not have been a Palestinian national movement at all. Evaluation: Surely, Arafats armed solution is interpreted differently by different cultures and people. Arafats emergence was in bloody early days of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, a time when sympathy of Palestinians and their struggle was widespread in the Muslim world whereas backing and support was provided to Israel by many western states. This makes the Palestinian debate a 2 sided debate, and consequently, an evaluation of Arafat is often affected by emotion and bias by the opposing parties. Arafats armed resolution of the Palestinian problem isnt a clear cut issue of neither terrorism nor political fanaticism. Two issues must be understood to drive this point; firstly, Arafats activities as a militant rather than a terrorist. An analysis of Yasser Arafats activates prove that he rather was present and an active member in raids and attacks against the Israeli army and troops and rather not in the alleged terrorist attacks of the PLO. Also, since he never was proven to be a terrori st, it can never be claimed he was indeed a terrorist. Secondly, a distinction must be made between the activates of Arafat and those of his bodyguards and Fatah colleagues. Often, the actions of both are confused, and when an attack by Fatah insurgents is carried of, its often stated that Arafat himself was part of then. Its true that Yasser Arafats role as leader of Palestinian spurred some to extremism, but it must be understood, though his Fatah colleagues did engaged in terrorism, he didnt. Yasser Arafat armed role in dealing with the Palestine problem should not be seen as of radicalism or extremism in thought and intent. Arafats armed struggle, though did not solve the issue, did in fact bring some results. His armed struggle brought a resurgence of the people of Palestine. With the united Arab response being habitually useless (by constant Arab defeat and loss to Israel,) only a Palestinian response seemed to solution. This but rather needed the revival of the Palestinian hope, which was severely crushed by the mid 1960 (especially with the loss of Jerusalem.) Though ludicrous it may sound, Palestinian revitalisation would not have occurred through peaceful means. The reason for this was that Palestinians where irritated and demoralised by the constant disappointment in the outcomes of Arab negotiations concerning their struggle. A symbol of an armed struggle would only then revitalise these frustrated Palestinians. With the creation of Fatah, (to liberate Palestine by Palestinians) Arafats armed struggle brought this Palestinian resurgence. Arafat also united the Palestinian people, under his armed struggle, a strong step in dealing with the Palestinian problem. In essence, hadnt this revitalisation occurred, the State of Palestine would not have been created, and future talks of peace and co-existence would not have occurred. But it should be clearly understood, that Arafat did not achieve his intended aim in his armed approach. A Peaceful Resolve for the Palestinian Problem: A Change in Contention, Olso and Camp David: In 1974, the PLO executive committee including Arafat drew up The Ten Point Program[21]. By many, is considered as the first peaceful initiative taken by Arafat to resolve the Palestinian Problem. It was a decree calling for Israel to return back liberated[22] Palestinian lands. The declaration wasnt one of change in direction, though was unique in that it did show Arafat to have a way of dealing with the problem through negotiations. The Ten Point Program was to be followed by more years of violence. After years of unrest with the rise of the terrorist group Hamas and notably the coming into being of First Intifada (which Arafat associated himself to); on the 13th and 14th of December 1988, Arafat announces a change of thought. He formally recognised the State of Israel, renounced terrorism, and revealed intentions of seeking peaceful negotiations in managing the Palestinian problem[23]. A month earlier, the Palestinian National Council (led by Arafat) announces and proclaims T he Palestinian Declaration of Independence[24]. It was a new direction for Arafat in settling the Palestinian problem. In 1993 marks a historical event in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, as the first direct talks between Israeli and Palestinian leaders took place in Oslo, Norway. The talks were very secretive, with Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabik with their top ministers negotiating in terms to co-exist peacefully. Issues such as the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Palestinian territories, Palestinian elections, economic cooperation and regional development were all discussed. Both parties agreed on the status of each, the rights of each other, and their intentions to co-exist. With the help of the Clinton government, on 13th of September 1993, the Oslo Accord was signed. It was thought to be the basis of all future talks between both. In 2000, continuing talks took place between Israel and Palestine at Camp David, in order to finalise the conditions of the Oslo Accord[25] . The talks were to therein define the boundaries of Israel and Palestine. The status of Jerusalem (a key aspect of the Palestinian problem) was the hindrance point in the talks. In regards to the possession of Jerusalem, both parties were unable to agree on a compromise, hence making the Camp David talks a failure. Analysis of Arafats Peaceful Resolve: Arafats change in approach in dealing with the Palestinian approach (i.e. seeking peaceful measures) has often incurred various interpretations. One particular arguement is that Arafat changed his strategy of armed approach to a peaceful one in order to fool others and drive his own agenda of securing Palestinian homeland. It was a typical Arafat style solution. By being so ambiguous about his methods and goals, Arafat could hope to convince the west that he was ready for peace and convince his own colleagues that he was determined to continue the struggle[26]. These views hereby make Arafats change in approach a somewhat deceitful trick that rather had true initiative. A different viewpoint states that Arafat was rather pressured by Israeli and American officials to denounce an armed approach and terrorism[27]. Throughout the Oslo Accords, its stated that Arafat was the weaker party, and that he was rather accepted terms and condition which Israel modelled[28]. This argument th ereby makes Arafats peaceful resolution of the Palestinian problem not an intuitive of his, but rather a pressure he had to comply with. In regards to the Camp David Summit, a many historians believed it was doomed to fail. Kamrava argues that both parties thought they were giving up more to the other, while the other wasnt being reasonable[29] in their compromise[30].Hence, in dealing with the most controversial issue of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the issue of Jerusalem, there was never to be an agreement. Hence, Arafats peaceful resolve of the Palestinian problem was always doomed to fail. Nevertheless, there are others, such as Bassim Abu Sherif, who says that the new peace path was rather genuine and promising. He claims though the US authorities did put down demands for Yasser Arafat, Arafat rather wanted his announcement to first be supported by for the PLO and Palestinians, then flexible to US demands, It was clear that Arafat wanted to be flexible enough to meet American demands, but he also wanted to make sure that he had the approval of the majority of the PLO executive committee to preserve the democracy of the decision making process of the PLO.[31] It was clear that Arafat was aware that by this time, both he and Palestinians were exhausted from fighting. Hence, this different approach in dealing with the Palestinian struggle might be interpreted as a new path, thereby creating new opportunities in dealing with the Palestinian problem. Evaluation: Arafats change in means resolving the Palestinian problem is also an issue of debate. The question of why change in direction and whether it was genuine is truly the discussion. But a deduction of Arafats activities brings an understanding of genuinity. Hence, his role in trying to resolve the Palestinian problem is herein magnified by his actions of this new resolve. Its evident that with years of unrest and the lack of advancement in resolving the Palestinian problem, Arafat needed to find a new resolve. He needed to settle the Palestinian crisis that now nearly turned into internal feuding. So, by understanding this dire need of change, it must be clear that he, Arafat, chose to change the idea of an armed struggle. It seems that he neither needed the pressure of Israel or the U.S. but rather chose to do it because of situation of the Palestinian people. Hence, it makes the resolution a genuine on Arafats part. Therefore, we see in Arafats change in thought his striving quest of solving the Palestinian problem. Arafats role in dealing with the Palestinian problem could further be evaluated by his actions at Oslo and Camp David. First of all, he dealt with the issue of Palestinian homeland in Palestine with the Oslo Accord. In this regard, Arafat failed to clearly resolve the issue, due to the vagueness of the matter he agreed on. This leads to the next issue of Jerusalem. Arafats Oslo agreements failure is exacerbated by the fact that the continuation of Oslo, (Camp David) broke down with the issue of Jerusalem. This issue of Israeli-Palestinian co-existence was spoken of the most in both talks, but without decisively dealing with this tension point issues, Arafat was doomed to fail. Hence, though Arafat tried to drive and resolve the Palestinian problem peacefully, he achieve no more than his armed resolution. Bibliography: Books: Lukacs, Yehuda, 1992, The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict a documentary record 1967-1990, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Barry Rubin Judith Colp Rubin, 2003, Arafat: A Political Biography, Oxford University Press, Inc, New York. Bassam Abu Sharif, 2009, Arafat and the Dream for Palestine, Palgrave Macmillan, New York. T.G. Fraser, 2008, The Arab-Israeli conflict, 3rd ed., Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Brown, Nathan. J, 2003, Palestinian Politics after the Oslo Accord: Arab Palestine, University of Californian Press, London, England. Dan Cohn-Sherbok Dawoud El-Alami (eds), 2008, The Palestine-Israeli Conflict, Oneworld Publication, Oxford, England. Mehran Kamrava, 2005, The Modern Middle East, University of California Press, Ltd, London England. Mark Tesseler, 1994, A History Of The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, USA, Journals: Simha Flapan, 1987, The Palestinian Exodus of 1948, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Summer, 1987),University of California Press. Websites: UN Partition Plan, 2001, Retrieved 25th January, 2010, Yasser Arafat, Retrieved 25th January, 2010, Timeline: Yasser Arafat, 2004, Retrieved 25th January, 2010, Political Program Adopted at the 12th Session of the Palestine National Council Cairo, 8 June 1974, Retrieved 26th January, 2010, Muin Rabbani, 2000, Encyclopedia Of The Palestinians: Biography of Gassan Kanafani, Retrieved 26th January, 2010, Poisoned Mossad chocolate killed PFLP leader in 1977, says book, 2006, Retrieved 26th January, 2010, Terrorist Organisation Profile: Black September,2007, University of Maryland, Retrieved 26th January, 2010, Arafat at the UN general Assembly, 2009, Retrieved 27th January, 2010, Prof. Francis A. Boyle, 2006 Palestine Independence Day, Retrieved 27th January, 2010, Why did the PLO suddenly decide, in 1988, that Israel had a right to exist?, Retrieved 27th January, 2010, The Balfour Declaration, Retrieved 20th February, 2010, The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948, Retrieved 20th February, 2010, Fateh Constitution, Retrieved 20th February, 2010, The Israeli Camp David II Proposal for Final Settlement, Retrieved 20th February, 2010, The Balfour Decleration, The Third Aliyah, The Population of Palestine Prior to 1948, UN Partition Plan, 2001, Simha Flapan, 1987, The Palestinian Exodus of 1948, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Summer, 1987), pp. 3-26,University of California Press. Yasser Arafat, Fateh Constitution, Mark Tesseler, A History Of The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, USA, 1994, pg. 425 Ibid, pg.426 Yasser Arafat, Muin Rabbani, 2000, Encyclopedia Of The Palestinians: Biography of Gassan Kanafani, Poisoned Mossad chocolate killed PFLP leader in 1977, says book, 2006, Terrorist Organisation Profile: Black September, 2007, University of Maryland ibid Barry Rubin, Judith Colp Rubin, Arafat: A Political Biography, Oxford University Press, Inc, New York, 2003, pg.61 Ibid, pg.61 Ibid, pg.63 Bassam Abu Sharif, Arafat and the Dream for Palestine, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2009, pg. T.G. Fraser, The Arab-Israeli conflict, 3rd ed., Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008, pg.57 Ibid, pg.88 Political Program Adopted at the 12th Session of the Palestine National Council Cairo, 8 June 1974, ibid Arafat at the UN general Assembly, 2009, Prof. Francis A. Boyle, 2006 Palestine Independence Day, The Israeli Camp David II Proposal for Final Settlement, Rubin, op.cit., pg.113 Why did the PLO suddenly decide, in 1988, that Israel had a right to exist?, Mehran Kamrava, The Modern Middle East, University of California Press, Ltd, London England, 2005, pg. 243-244 Ibid, pg.248 ibid Abu Sharif, op.cit., pg.183

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Civil Peace Free Essays

Civil Peace Chinua Achebe The short story â€Å"Civil Peace† by Chinua Achebe is about a man named Jonathan Iwegbu, his wife Maria and his three surviving children. Chinua Achebe’s emphasis in his short story is how Jonathan and his family are trying to get on with their lives after the Civil War in Nigeria. Moreover, there is a phrase that Jonathan says several times through his story, â€Å"nothing puzzles God†. We will write a custom essay sample on Civil Peace or any similar topic only for you Order Now What does Jonathan means when he says this?The story starts off with Jonathan realizing how lucky he is to have survived the war along with his wife and three of his four children, one of his sons did not survive. He also mentions that his old bicycle which he had buried in the ground a year earlier just needed a little greasing and was able to be used again. This is also where Jonathan first uses the phrase â€Å"Nothing puzzles God†, (page 29). I think that in this part of the story Jonathan means that although his bicycle had been buried in the ground for a year all that it needed to work again was a little oil.Most people may have thought that the bicycle would have been no good or puzzled by the fact that it worked, but God knew that it would be okay, so Jonathan places his faith in God, â€Å"Nothing puzzles God†. Jonathan immediately put his bicycle to use as a taxi to earn money. He then mentions that he makes the journey to Enugu and when he arrives he finds another miracle. His little house is still standing, â€Å"he discovers that miraculously his own modest home is intact†, Dameron Charles, â€Å"Chinua Achebe†, A Reader’s Companion to the Short Story in English, paragraph 15.He again uses the phrase â€Å"nothing puzzles God†. Jonathan talks about the fact that just two houses away a huge concrete structure is no longer there, but his tiny little house has survived. As this point, I think Jonathan means that despite the war and hardship a small house withstood the effects of the war and Jonathan and his family had a place to return to. Jonathan after fixing his home opens a palm-wine bar for soldiers and people who had a lot of money. He opens this bar rather than going back to work as a miner. Jonathan talks of receiving twenty pounds from the treasury which he eceived for turning in rebel money and how he felt like it was Christmas because he had so much money. He attracts the attention of thieves who show up at his home that night to steal the money. Jonathan explains how he is usually a heavy sleeper but on this night he hears ever noise. He finally falls asleep and is awakened by knocking at the door. Jonathan and his wife scream for the police and for their neighbors but no one comes to help them. The thieves want one hundred pounds, but Jonathan tells them that he only has the twenty pounds that he had received from the treasury.Jonathan agrees to hand over the twenty pounds and the thieves leave. When Jonathan tells people of the robbery the next morning, he again uses the phrase â€Å"Nothing puzzles God†, (page 34). I believe that Jonathan means that with everything that has happened, the war, his son’s death, his bicycle being recovered, his house still standing, and finally the robbery that God has a plan for everything and although we may not understand what that plan is God does and therefore nothing puzzles God.He is a humble man, â€Å"He is a modern, and modest, hero, a rural counterpoint to the doomed Gladys†. Dameron Charles, â€Å"Chinua Achebe†, A Reader’s Companion to the Short Story in English, paragraph 15. Chinua Achebe is aware of Jonathan’s feelings and he knows about his suffering and of his family members. However, the writer mentioned that Jonathan has a strong faith of God. Moreover, Jonathan always keeps his optimistic view of life and that is very important for all readers. How to cite Civil Peace, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Problem Solution Essay free essay sample

Keeping Awake Stress is a feeling that everything seems to have become too much overloading and when under the stress it is wondered whether the pressure placed upon him or her could be coped with. One of the most common types of it is school stress. It can be experienced at any grade and may result from innumerable factors. These factors are teacher or friend-based ones, grade-based ones, over-scheduling and lack of self-confidence. Students can be affected by the environment and also the stress may occur instinctively. Both the surroundings and the individual’s own thoughts, characteristics can trigger the stress process. As a result, these causes reflect in various ways. Overstress results in failing in the school works, alienation from the society, going away from the school, lack of tranquility both in school and home and even some mental problems. However, none of them is unsolvable. There are solutions for those students who have difficulty in coping with the school stress and getting rid of all negative feelings. We will write a custom essay sample on Problem Solution Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One solution lies within the student himself. It comes from where it starts off: Brain. Positive thinking is a way of handling the stress. Even though it may be considered as unreasonable, according to scientists  optimists  actually experience better circumstances, in part, because their way of thinking helps to  create  better circumstances in their lives. The habit of optimism  and positive thinking can bring better relationships at school. To be precise, optimist people are not liable to see the side effects of a situation at first so that it will be easier for them to make friends. They do not have prejudices generally and do not give up readily. The consequence of it will be to get to know people well and never surrendering against a obstacle such as a scolding teacher. Instead of standing on a chair and conceding all the stressors unwillingly, staying strong and resisting them will much help to handle stress and anxiety. Secondly, it is best to share one’s school problems with someone especially one from their families. An objective point of view will be good for evaluating the situation and find a better solution for it. He or she may offer a choice to them so that this can enable one to feel safe and comfortable. They are the only ones who understand you deeply and give the most suitable advice. For example, if a student encounter a problem with the teacher, it is best to tell all about it to the parents. The response will necessarily be calming: â€Å"You are alone neither in the classroom nor in the home. All you should do is to focus on your work and take the necessary information. You do not have to argue against the teacher or give ways to the facts. † The more one perceives the assistance of a dependable soul, the less he or she suppresses their worries. Feeling of calmness by support of a family surely relieves the anxiety. One can prevent the stress from overweighing him or her by taking some precautions in case of unexpected situations. One should schedule time for homework and stick to the schedule; in addition, he or she should set aside some time each day just for themselves. If a break is needed after school, it is more sensible to take it and schedule homework time later in the evening. The fact that the opposite of stress is relaxation is indisputable. Using the time to organize life, relax, and pursue their own interests is one of the efficient ways to avoid stress at school. An individual should be aware of his or her traits and behave accordingly. What makes them feel discontented or what kinds of friends are suitable for them? These questions are to be answered by the individual itself. Characteristic decompositions are responsible for overstress by and large. If it is felt such as lack of self-confidence, disability to trust on people, or calling off to-dos, student should be aware of the situation and struggle to arrange things. When the causes of stress are vanished and some precautions are taken, stress at school is not the worst thing one has ever come across. The solutions are manifold and feasible. It requires just keeping awake and endeavoring.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Cremation as a theme in on of George Bernard Shaws books

Cremation as a theme in on of George Bernard Shaws books In a written exerpt from a letter about the cremation of his mother, GeorgeBernard Shaw recalls her "passage" with humor and understanding. The dark humorassociated with the horrid details of disposing of his mother's physical body are eventuallyreconciled with an understanding that her spirit lives on. He imagines how she would findhumor in the bizarre event of her own cremation. The quality of humor unites Shaw andhis mother in a bond that transcends the event of death and helps Shaw understand thather spirit will never die. The reader is also released from the horror of facing themechanics of the cremation process when "Mama's" own comments lead us to understandthat her personality and spirit will live on.Shaw's diction is effective in conveying his mood and dramatizing the process ofcremation. The traditional words of a burial service "ashes to ashes, dust to dust" are notaltered for the cremation, the interior chamber "looked cool, clean, and sunny" as by agraveside, and the cof fin was presented "feet first" as in a ground burial.Bone-picking ceremony at a Japanese funeralIn selectingaspects of a traditional burial service, Shaw's mood is revealed as ambivalent towardcremation by imposing recalled fragments of ground burial for contrast. Strangelyfascinated, he begins to wonder exactly what happens when one is cremated. This moodof awe is dramatized as he encounters several doors to observe in his chronologicalinvestigation. He sees "a door opened in the wall," and follows the coffin as it "passed outthrough it and vanished as it closed," but this is not "the door of the furnace." He findsthe coffin "opposite another door, a real unmistakable furnace door," but as the coffinbecame engulfed in flame, "the door fell" and the mystery only continues an...